Reduction of Coliforms presents in domestic residual waters by Air-Ozone Micro-Nanobubbles In Carhuaz city, Peru

Rudy Cruz, Jhonny Valverde Flores


Peru generates approximately 2 217 946 m3 per day of wastewater discharged to the sewage system and only 32% receive treatment. The rest of the waters are discharged to the rivers, which have presence of fecal coliforms. Preliminary analyzes of the domestic wastewater of the Carhuaz district were carried out, with total coliforms (at 35ºC) of 240,000 CFU / 100 mL and thermotolerant coliforms (at 44.5ºC) of 130,000 CFU / 100mL at pH 7 , 17 exceeding the environmental standard values. The treatments were carried out with the air-ozone micro-nanobubbles generator with a water flow rate of 4.67 L/min and a pressure of the air-ozone mixture of 90 PSI, achieving a reduction of total coliforms up to 100 CFU/100 mL (99.96%) and fecal coliforms up to 100 CFU/100mL (99.92%)


Domestic sewage, micro-nanobubbles, ozone, air, fecal and total coliforms

Full Text:



Choung J, Luttell GH, Yoon RH: Characterization of operating parameters in the cleaning zone of microbubble column flotation. Int J Mineral Process 1993, 39:31-40.

Chu, L.-B., S.-T. Yan, et al. "Enhanced sludge solubilization by microbubble ozonation." Chemosphere. 2008. 72: 205-212.

Englehardt, J. "Identifying Promising Hazardous Waste Reduction Technologies", Journal of Environmental Engineering, 120, pp. 513-526, 1994

Fan M, Tao D, Honaker R, Luo Z: Nanobubble generation and its application in froth flotation (part I): nanobubble generation and its effects on properties of microbubble and millimetre scale bubble solutions. Mining Sci Technol. 2010. 20:1-19.

Ikeura, H., F. Kobayashi, et al. "Removal of residual pesticide, fenitrothion, in vegetables by using ozone microbubbles generated by different methods". Journal of Food Engineering. 2011. 103: 345-349.

Khadre MA, Yousef AE, Kim JG. Microbiological aspects of ozone applications in food: a review. J Food Sci 2001; 66: 1242–1252.

Kingsbury RS, Singer PC. Effect of magnetic ion exchange and ozonation on disinfection by-product formation. Water Res 2013; 47: 1060–1072.

Kobayashi F, Ikeura H, Ohsato S, Goto T, Tamaki M. Disinfection using ozone microbubbles to inactivate Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. Carotovorum. Crop Protection 2011; 30: 1514 – 1518.

Liu, C., Hiroshi, T., Zhang, J., Zhang, L., Yang, J., Huang, X., Kubota, N. Successful Application of Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) Membrane System for Microbubble Aeration in Biofilm Reactor Treating Synthetic Wastewater. Separation and Purification Technology. 2013 Volume 103, pp. 53–59

Liu G, Wu Z, Craig VSJ: Cleaning of protein-coated surfaces using nanobubbles: an investigation using a quartz crystal microbalance. J Phys Chem C 2008, 112:16748-16753.

Nakashima, T., Kobayashi, Y. and Hirata, Y. 2012. Method to Exterminate Blue-Green Algae in a Large Pond and To Improve Plant Growth by Micro-Nano Bubbles in Activated Water. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 2012. 938:391-400

OEFA. Residual water. 2014.

Rijk, S. E. D., J. H. J. M. V. D. Graaf, et al. "Bubble Size In Flotation Thickening". Water Research. 1994. 28(2): 465-473.

Sadatomi, M., A. Kawahara, et al. "An advanced microbubble generator and its application to a newly developed bubble-jet-type air-lift pump." Multiphase Science and Technology. 2007. 19(4): 323-342.

Serizawa, Akimi, et al. "Laminarization of micro-bubble containing milky bubbly flow in a pipe." Proceedings of 3rd European-Japanese Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting. 2003.

Tachikawa M, Yamanaka K. Synergistic disinfection and removal of biofilms by a sequential two-step treatment with ozone followed by hydrogen peroxide. Water Res 2014; 64: 94–101.

Takahashi M, Chiba K, Li P. Free-radical generation from collapsing microbubbles in the absence of a dynamic stimulus. J Phys Chem. 2007a. B 111:1343–7.

Takahashi M, Chiba K, Li P. Formation of hydroxyl radicals by collapsing ozone microbubbles under strongly acidic conditions. J Phys Chem. 2007b. B 111:11443–6.

Valverde, J. Nanotechnology for the Environmental Engineering. In: First International Congress in environmental Engineering oriented to environmental technologies: 6th to 11th october. Lima, 2016, pp. 26.

Von Gunten U. Ozonation of drinking water: part II. Disinfection and by-product formation in presence of bromide, iodide or chlorine. Water Res 2003a; 37: 1469–1487.

Wu Z, Chen H, Dong Y, Mao H, Sun J, Chen S, Craig VSJ, Hu J: Cleaning using nanobubbles: defouling by electrochemical generation of bubbles. J Colloid Interface Sci 2008, 328:10-14.

Wu C, Nesset N, Masliyah J, Xu Z. Generation and characterization of submicron size bubbles. Adv. Colloid Interfac. 2012;179-182:123-132.

Yount, DE. On the elastic properties of the interfaces that stabilize gas cavitation nuclei. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 1997;193:50-59.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Indexed in:





Licencia de Creative Commons
Journal of Nanotechnology is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internacional License.


Journal of Nanotechnology is an Open Access, peer-reviewed journal published by CINCADER Publishing®, Lima, Peru.

The views expressed by the authors do not necessarily reflect the viewpoint of the Editor or the Publisher.

All credits and honors to PKP for their OJS.